Taking A Look At Alcohol Assessment

By Stacey Burt

In chemical called liqor to those organic chemical compounds containing a hydroxyl group (-OH) in replacing a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a carbon atom. Besides this carbon must be saturated, ie must have only single bonds to two separate atoms, one that differentiates liqor-phenols. If containing several hydroxyl groups are called polyols (alcohol assessment).

The liqors may be primary, secondary or tertiary, depending on the number of hydrogen atoms substituted on the carbon atom to which they are bound to hydroxyl group. The liqor comes from the Arabic wordof al (determinant) and kuhul meaning 'subtle'. This is because formerly called "spirit" to liqors. For example, "spirits" to ethanol, and "wood spirit" to methanol.

The kit liqor can have various compositions. Ethyl liqor can be completely to 96 degrees, with an additive such as benzalkonium chloride or a substance to give an unpleasant taste. It is what is known as denatured ethyl liqor. Are also used as denaturants diethyl phthalate and methanol, which makes some toxic methylated spirits.

Tertiary liqor: tertiary liqors react almost instantaneously, because they are relatively stable tertiary carbocations. Tertiary liqors react directly with hydrochloric acid to produce the tertiary chloroalkane, but a primary or secondary liqor is used the presence of a Lewis acid is required, a "trigger" as zinc chloride.

Common (non-systematic): putting the word liqor and replacing the suffix -ano corresponding alkane. For example would methyl liqor, ethyl liqor, propyl liqor, etc. IUPAC: adding a l (el) to -ano name suffix in hydrocarbon precursor (met-ano-l, where meth indicates a carbon atom, -ano- indicates a hydrocarbon alkane which is -l an liqor), and identifying the position of carbon atom that is bonded to hydroxyl group (3-butanol, for example).

When liqor is substituent group, the hydroxy prefix is used. The diol, triol, etc. Suffixes are used, depending on the amount of OH groups. Monoliqors alkanes derivatives corresponding to general formula CnH2n plus 1OH. The liqors are typically colorless liquids with characteristic odor, soluble in water in varying proportions and less dense than it. By increasing the molecular weight, increase their melting and boiling points and may be solid at room temperature (ie the pentaerititrol melts at 260 degrees C). Unlike those derived alkanes, the hydroxyl functional group allows the molecule soluble in water due to similarity of hydroxyl group with the water molecule and allows hydrogen bonding.

Tertiary liqor: although resist being oxidized with mild oxidizing, if an energetic as potassium permanganate is used, tertiary liqors are oxidized products giving as a ketone with a number less carbon atoms, and methane is released .

The fact that the hydroxyl group can also form hydrogen bonds affects the melting and boiling points of liqors. Although the hydrogen bond formed is very weak compared to other types of bonds are formed in large numbers between molecules, forming a collective network which hinders the molecules can escape the state in which they are (solid or liquid), thus increasing their melting and boiling points compared to corresponding alkanes. Furthermore, two points are usually far apart, so are often used as components of antifreeze mixtures. For example, 1,2-ethanediol has a melting point of -16 degrees C and a boiling point of 197 degrees C.

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